Не могу сказать, что очень люблю Шопенгауэра. Какие-то книги лучше бы читать в юности (a), история про бабушку, которую этот современник раскольникова спустил с лестницы (b), мешает мне его высокие истины воспринимать.
The First World War was regarded by many as the final struggle and its conclusion the ultimate victory for freedom. Existing democracies appeared strengthened, and new ones replaced old monarchies. But only a few years elapsed before new systems emerged which denied everything that men believed they had won in centuries of struggle. For the essence of these new systems, which effectively took command of man’s entire social and personal life, was the submission of all but a handful of men to an authority over which they had no control.
В то время как сельские жители с недоверием и даже враждебностью встречали рост городской цивилизации, для самих горожан новые условия открывали перспективы дотоле неведомые и желанные. Менялся весь их жизненный уклад, причем на ход этих перемен воля вождей, политиков и реформаторов оказывала теперь куда большее влияние, чем тысячелетние традиции. Греция вступала на путь социальных экспериментов.
Václav Havel, The Power of the Powerless
The smaller a dictatorship and the less stratified by modernization the society under it, the more directly the will of the dictator can be exercised. In other words, the dictator can employ more or less naked discipline, avoiding the complex processes of relating to the world and of self-justification which ideology involves. But the more complex the mechanisms of power become, the larger and more stratified the society they embrace, and the longer they have operated historically, the more individuals must be connected to them from outside, and the greater the importance attached to the ideological excuse. It acts as a kind of bridge between the regime and the people, across which the regime approaches the people and the people approach the regime. This explains why ideology plays such an important role in the post-totalitarian system: that complex machinery of units, hierarchies, transmission belts, and indirect instruments of manipulation which ensure in countless ways the integrity of the regime, leaving nothing to chance, would be quite simply unthinkable without ideology acting as its all-embracing excuse and as the excuse for each of its parts.